Bullet point notes




      Inborn response/not learned/genetically determined; e.g. ability to produce a song of a specific length and containing specific notes

      shown by all individuals of species


Benefits of courtship behaviour:

      Species recognition;

      sex identification;

      courtship/attract a mate;

      synchronise sex behaviour/strengthen pair bond;

      territory marking/defence;



      In winter maintains food supply to survive adverse conditions

      used for acquiring a mate/pair formation/courtship

      retaining the mate/pair bonding

      food supply for young/less competition for food

      protection of young

      less disease transmission

      lower chance of predation

      natural selection of fittest/only fittest obtain territories


Aggressive encounters

      Less chance of injury

      requires less energy

      is established territories intruder is submissive/withdraws (so fighting is not needed)

      fighting used when both individuals have a chance of acquiring it

      song/display used to advertise fitness



      Move faster in unfavourable environment

      increases chance of finding suitable environment/remaining in a favourable environment

      Rate of movement related to intensity of stimulus



      Stimulus repeated many times;

      No reinforcement by actual predator;

      Nerve adaptation/ nerve impulses blocked



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