CARBOHYDRATES - KEY NOTES
Contain Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen.
|Energy Source||Carbohydrates are principal respiratory substrates|
|Structural Compounds||Cellulose (CW of all plant cells) & Lignin|
|Storage Compounds||Plants, Starch (common plant storage never in animals) Animals. Glycogen (e.g. mammalian liver)|
CLASSIFICATION: The basic sugar unit = the saccharide
Examples of Monosaccharides: Glucose, Ribose
General There are the building blocks of other important C/Hs
Reducing Sugar Properties (all monosaccharides are reducing sugars). M/S are capable of REDUCING benedicts solution. When this reduction occurs benedicts solution changes from blue to orange/red.
Examples of D/S: Maltose (Malt sugar), Lactose (milk sugar)
Maltose formed by CONDENSATION of 2 units of glucose, the bond is called a glycosidic bond.
Note: In the exam you could be given half of the reaction below and asked to fill in the other half - you wouldn't be asked to come up with it all off the top of your head
|2 molecules of glucose|
|Undergo a condensation reaction to form|
|Maltose and Water|
General Summary of disaccharides
Examples of P/S: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
These are an important group of carbohydrates. Two main divisions:
General Properties of P/S
In these polysaccharides the sugar unit residues present in long chain molecules of the polymer are straight, and cross-linkages between chains occur giving the material its strength.